The Encyclopedia of Al-Biruni , in which history has witnessed a unique world, and the word of a world is not enough to express what this man means, it is an integrated scientific encyclopedia whose fields of knowledge are diverse. This is the Arab and European scientists who were amazed by the Al-Biruni of his scientific research and discoveries, which contribute to the day in the service of scientists in various fields whether mathematical or historical geography or astronomical Al-Biruni emerged as the most famous scientific personality over the different eras and his writings emerged as one of the most important writings Which influenced the libraries, the scholars considered the legacy of knowledge left to them by the Al-Biruni to learn from it the different sciences.
Birth and Genesis of Al-Biruni t :-
Abou El Rayhan Mohammed bin Ahmed al khawarizmi “Al-Biruni “, comes the term Byron from Persian meaning “zahir ” or “outside “, born Al-Biruni on September 4, 973 CE in Kath Capital of Khorezm “is currently located in Uzbekistan ” is known about the Al-Biruni since the small love of mathematics, astronomy and geography and taking His science about many of the distinguished scientists including Abu Nasr Mansour bin Ali bin Iraq, one of the princes of the dynasty of Iraq’s ruler of Khorezm and was a world renowned in sports and astronomy, and the Al-Biruni worked to study a number of languages to be perfected and was one of these languages Persian, Arabic, Syriac and Greek.
Al-Biruni from Khorezm to “irrigation ” As a result of some disturbances in khorazem and this was in 994 CE, he met in the “irrigation ” The astronomer “Khanindi ” where he conducted some observations and astronomical research, and then returned to his country again where he continued his work and research in the meteorology, traveled again to “Gerg “In 998 m, where he joined the court of Sultan Qaboos bin and Shamkair and he was a lover of science and scientists and replete with many distinguished scholars in various branches of science and knowledge, as he had a library rich with many valuable books met Al-Biruni in this period in the world Galilee Ibn Sina and headmistress, as he contacted By the astronomical physician Abi Sahl Issa bin Yahya al-Christian, where he received the knowledge and participated in his scientific research, the period spent by the Al-Biruni in the court of Sultan Qaboos bin and Shamkair was a rich period for him where he studied and did the work of various scientific researches as he met with many distinguished scientists and was One of his important achievements is that he has authored one of his major works, “the remaining relics of the free pods”, a historical book that combines the dates and calendar that Arabs, Romans, Indians and Jews used before Islam, as he illustrated the dates of kings from Adam’s reign to his time, as there is Detailed schedules for Persian, Hebrew, Rumi and Hindi months, illustrating how dates are extracted from each other.
The Al-Biruni stayed in Gorgan for a period of time in which he was able to accomplish many important scientific steps, during which he was a permanent place of appreciation and respect, then a revolution in Gorgan, which toppled the court of Sultan Qaboos in 1009 CE, then the Al-Biruni returned back to his homeland and settled in the city ” Jergens “which became the capital of the state algorithm, he then joined the Board of Science established by Prince Mamoun bin Maamoun Amir Khorezm, who included many distinguished scholars including Ibn Sina, Ibn Meskoya historian and Feloswill and through the enrollment of the Al-Biruni in the Science Council that earned his high status and fate The amir of Khorezm, who knew the Al-Biruni as a venerable scientist, took him as his advisor and briefed him, and during this period he continued to Al-Biruni the collection of science and to carry out his astronomical research, until the seizure of Khoarazem by Sultan Mahmud al-Ghazzouni, which he annexed to his queen, moved the Al-Biruni to the slab He was deported again in 1016 CE to Ghazni, “located south of Kabul, Afghanistan.”
The Al-Bīrūnī took advantage of his transition among many countries to learn more about science and expand his sciences. During his subsequent period in the “Ghazna ” He worked with astronomy and other sciences, as reported to his companion to Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavid in his conquests in the countries of India where she knew her science and studied it as he learned M Hindi and contacted its scientists, studied its own geographical nature, in addition to studying the customs, traditions and beliefs of the country, the Al-Bīrūnī was not wasting any chance to acquire new science, the knowledge was pursued wherever it is anchored and he was not allowed to miss something from it yielded the period that In India for another book he joined the huge heritage of books and science left to us by the Al-Bīrūnī this book was titled “Realizing what India has accepted in the mind or perfidy,” where he addressed the Indian civilization, geography, traditions, religion and other sciences of their own, and helped him study For the Indian language, the Al-Bīrūnī was appreciated and admired by all the Ghazali rulers. After the death of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavid, who was surrounded by his interest in recognition of his abundant knowledge, he took over the daughter of Sultan Masood bin Mahmud Ghaznavid, who also kept him in the Al-Bīrūnī and briefed him on the care and appreciation he deserved. World of scientific Al-Bīrūnī the Al-Bīrūnī has authored an encyclopedia in astronomy that it has named “The Law of Massoudi in Life and Stars”, a book that is a huge encyclopedia in science and has given it to Sultan Massoud Ghaznavid who has admired this valuable work and rewarded the Al-Bīrūnī, but the Al-Bīrūnī Who has always made his life for the service of science and knowledge I apologize for accepting the gift and explained that he serves science for science only and not for money.
Books and Writings:-
The Al-Bīrūnī has been able to compose many books in which he has presented his research and discoveries and many scientific aspects in various fields, whether astronomical, historical, sporting, and other scientific fields, these books that have influenced the scientific arena a lot and still refer to it as an important reference in many researches Scientific scientists now, it has a total of one hundred and twenty books and has been translated into many languages including English, French and other languages.
From these books, we mention the various messages in the Commission–and it contains eleven letters in different sciences.
Gems in the Knowledge of jewels – The book includes the science of minerals.
Extraction of tendons in the circle with the characteristics of the curved line in it-this book was issued in engineering, the book of work by the Astrolabe, a book in the realization of the moon houses, the Book of Engineering Matters, the collection of roads in the knowledge of the circle strings varied Al-Bīrūnī books in various fields and in addition to the author of many The books were also translated into a number of books because of the fact that in a number of languages, he transferred some books from the Indian heritage and the Greek heritage to Arabic, including the book of Euclid’s Origins and the Book of Ptolemy.
Awards and honours :-
The Al-Bīrūnī received a tribute both during his life and after his death from many scientific bodies that appreciated his great efforts in the field of science, and in 1950 the Soviet Academy of Sciences issued a commemorative volume on the occasion of the thousand years of his birth, and in the Islamic Republic of Uzbekistan a university was established In the name of the Al-Bīrūnī in the capital, Tashkent, in recognition of his scientific efforts, a statue was set up to commemorate his memory at the Geological Museum of the University of Moscow, and his name was launched on some of the moon’s landmarks among 18 Muslim worlds, in recognition of his efforts in astronomy.
Sayings about the Al-Bīrūnī :-
The orientalist said: “The Al-Bīrūnī is the biggest mentality in history”, and Another World describes it: “It is impossible to complete any research in history or geography without praising the work of this creative world.”
I love Al-Bīrūnī science and knowledge until its last breath in this world in the book “Dictionary of Writers ” Narrated by the great historian Sapphire Hamawi the position of what happened before the death of the Al-Bīrūnī moments and this position is described by Judge Ali Ben Issa and says “I entered my father Basil and he himself he had his own anus and narrowed his chest, he said to me And in that case: How did you ever tell me to account for the corrupt glory “Questions of successions ” And I said to him compassion: avi this case! He said to me: oh this is to say farewell I am a scientist in this matter, not to be better than to be freed and I am ignorant of it; And I went out of there and I heard the shouting. “
Death of the Al-Bīrūnī :-
The death of the Al-Bīrūnī in Ghazni on December 12, 1048 CE, after his life to serve science, is now remembered by scientists through his rich scientific history and scientific literature, which they refer to as an important material in various researches.