Muhammad Abdo, a man of Islamic thought Imam Muhammad Abdo, a preacher and Imam of Islam, was known for his idea of reform and his call for liberation from all forms of foreign colonialism and his constant attempts to upgrade Islamic and educational institutions and his constant quest for reform and development in Al-Azhar, Waqfs and the courts Legitimacy, much effort has been made to develop and reform the society despite the fact that it has been imprisoned and denied.
The birth of Muhammad Abdo and his upbringing:-
Imam “Muhammad Abdo ” was born in 1266 Ah-1849 CE for the August Turkmen origin, and an Egyptian mother belonging to the tribe “Bani Adi ” Arab, and grew up in the village “locality of Nasr ” in the governorate of Beheira.
The stages of education that he has undergone:
His father sent him to the village book where he received his first lessons, and then, at the age of 15, he joined the “al-Ahmadi mosque”-the mosque of Mr. Badawi in Tanta, where he received the sciences of Fiqh and Arabic language as the Qur’an preserved his existence, then moved Sheikh Mohammed Abdo to study in Al-Azhar in the The mother of 1865, and in this scientific and religious University received the value of his various sciences, studied fiqh, Hadith, tafsir, language, grammar, rhetoric, and other legal and linguistic sciences, continued to study in Al-Azhar until he obtained the certificate of universality from it in 1877 M Muhammad Abdo tried to open up to other sciences Which Al-Azhar was not interested in teaching at this time and found his interest in some of the personalities that affected his life effectively, including Sheikh Darwish Khader, who always advised him on the right path and urges him to recognize the various other sciences besides the Islamic and jurisprudential sciences, and then you know Mohammed P He wants to be Sheikh Hasan al-Tawal, who was familiar with a number of sciences such as mathematics and philosophy and received a number of lessons on his hands, then comes the role of Jamal al-Din Afghan in the life of Mohamed Abdo and creates a strong friendship inspired by the call for reform.
The practical and scientific aspect of his life:-
Through his goal of advocating for reform and spreading enlightenment and teaching in many places, including Al-Azhar al-Sharif, who taught logic and philosophy and unification in it, he studied in Dar al-Uloom, the introduction of Ibn Khaldoun, and taught in the School of al-Tongues, he authored a book in Sociology and urbanism, He also wrote a number of articles in a number of newspapers such as Al-Ahram newspaper.
The beginning of Muhammad Abdo in the reform:-
Riad Pasha (head of principals under the reign of Khedive Tawfiq) appointed Imam Muhammad Abdo
The life of Muhammad Abdo in his youth :-
He wants in the Egyptian fact sheet which is the newspaper where Riad Pasha has made some reforms and included a number of prominent personalities to work in it such as Saad Zaghloul, Mohammed Khalil and Sheikh Mohammed Abdo, where Mohammed Abdo has done the task of editing and writing in the section on literary and social reform articles Imam Muhammad Abdo was in the mainstream of the reform movement to the Conservatives who believe that the reform is through the spread of education among the people and the graduation of the parliamentary government and Saad Zaghloul was also a supporter of this current, which is the opposite of the current that calls for personal and political freedom like the approach of the countries European, a supporter of this current “Adeeb Ishaq ” and a group of intellectuals who received their sciences in the European countries the Arab Revolution in 1882, Muhammad Abdo was one of its supporters, was arrested and sentenced to three years in exile.
Political role and his life in exile:-
Muhammad Abdo moved to Beirut, where he stayed for almost a year, then moved to Paris to be near to his teacher and friend Gamal El Din al-Afghani, where they together established the newspaper “the close lug ” but unfortunately this newspaper did not last much as the articles that used to write the English was irritated The French, especially since it contained articles denouncing colonialism and calling for liberation from foreign occupation in all its forms, were stopped again to Beirut, where he authored a number of books, teaching in some of its mosques, and then moved to teach in the “Royal School ” in Beirut where he worked to upgrade and developed, he also participated in writing some articles in the newspaper “Fruits of the arts “, and he explained “The approach of eloquence ” and “maqams ” Badiezaman al-Hamani “.
Muhammad Abdo was pardoned after six years in exile, returned to Egypt and always dreamed of trying to reform Islamic institutions and trying to promote and develop education, Mohammed Abdo was appointed as a civil judge in the court of Banha, then in the court of Zagazig, and Abdeen then an advisor in the Court of Appeal learn Mohammed Abdo French language and he learned about many French books and laws, and he translated a book in the education from French to Arabic after the death of Khedive Tawfiq in 1892 CE, Khedive Abbas took the verdict and Muhammad Abdo tried to achieve his dream in the reform and development of Al-Azhar and Awqaf And the sharia courts by strengthening its relationship with Khedive Abbas, when the board of directors of Al-Azhar headed by Sheikh “Hassouna al-Nuawi ” Appointed Mohammed Abdo a member, and then became a mufti of the country.
Muhammad Abdo death:-
The relationship of Sheikh Mohammed Abdo to Khedive Abbas was not good and worsened over the days, which led to the attempt to undermine Muhammad Abdo in various ways possible through conspiracies, and try to distort his image in the newspapers and before the people, and this matter in the sheikh eventually to resign from Al-Azhar In 1905, after which he suffered a severe cancer until the death in Alexandria in July 1905.
Books and writings of Muhammad Abdo:-
Muhammad Abdo wrote, authored and explained a number of books, including the “Letter of Unification “, the investigation and explanation “The brief insights of Tusi “, the investigation and explanation “The signs of Miracles ” and the “Mysteries of eloquence ” of the book “Islam and Christianity between science and civil ” and in this book Mam Mohamed Abdo Made Interview between the Islamic and Christian religions and their impact on science and civil, the reform report of Sharia courts in 1899 and many writers and journalists have addressed the personality of Mohamed Abdo and his reformist opinions through their books and various articles including: The book “Muhammad abdo ” by Mahmoud Abbas Akkad, book “The pioneer of Egyptian thought – except Mam Muhammad Abdo” by Osman Amin, the book of “except Mam Mohamed Abdo in his news and thriller” by the author of Rehab Akawi, and many other books.