Al-Zaher Baybars is of Turkish origin and is one of the rulers who managed to line their biography in history with outstanding lines, with their many achievements, and despite some reservations in the person of this ruler but he was the owner of the credit to change the face of Egypt where he carried out many constructions and developments that contributed to the elevation of the status of State, and history still reminds it well and its existence is credited to it.
Many of the archaeological monuments remaining from the age of Al-Zaher Baybars are still standing to attest to the prosperity of his age and the extent of his keenness on the Renaissance in the country, despite the bad start that reached the verdict after he agreed with a number of princes to kill the country’s Sultan Saif al-Din Qutuz, the owner of the strike that I would In the life of the Sultan, he was inaugurated as the successor to the country to begin a new phase of government.
Birth and Genesis:-
His full name is the corner of Din Baybars al-Ben dkadari, born in 620 H-1223 in the area near the Volga River in Central Asia, Baybars were captured by the Mongols and taken from his country where he sold in Damascus to a man named “Imad Sayegh ” and then bought through Prince Aladdin Idkin aka Bal ben dkadari, from which Baybars took his surname after that he became “Baybars ben dary “, Baybars then moved from Prince Aladdin to King Najm al-Din Ayoub, who confiscated all the properties of Prince Aladdin and the Mamluks, joined Baybars to the Mamluk Knights Navy under the command of Prince Cut-off, and began The superiority of Baybars as a knight manifests and manifests clearly, especially in his Mansoura position, in which Baybars ‘ performance emerged as a leader in the face and elimination of the Crusade, and captured King Louis IX of France, and his performance as a knight in many internal conflicts in which he participated with his commander, Kcut.
After Izz al-Din APIC ruled the country as the successor to Sultan Najm al-Din Ayoub, the commander of his Knights Saif al-Din Qutuz killed Prince Fares al-Din Kcut, which replaced the situation of Baybars save him and his from the Mamluks to the Levant and remained in a state of movement between the country and come down in sham sometimes and again In the country’s reigns of power, he sent Baybars asking him to be safe and back to Egypt, which was what he was, and Baybars returned back to the country where he was welcomed and he was not satisfied with this. His ingenuity appeared in many battles, which come on the head of the Battle of Ein Jalut in 658 H-1260 CE, which featured his performance as a knight and was one of its heroes.
Baybars between treachery and judgment
After the victory in the Battle of Ein Jalut, Baybars thought of the King and Power, and his heart was surrounded by many surrounding him towards Sultan Qutuz, sparking the flames of hatred in his heart, further igniting the situation. R, he was determined to plot a conspiracy and a number of his companions for the assassination of Qutuz, and he was stabbed to death, and he came after him to assume the reins of power in the country.
He assumed the rule of Egypt:-
Baybars sat on the throne of Egypt to succeed the late Sultan Qutuz and the title of the King was launched, Baybars took on the task of developing and modernizing the country and striving for it so much and indeed became Egypt in the custody of a high degree of stability and modernity, he worked to bring princes closer to him and give them titles and feudal This was not confined only to the princes, but was brought to the close by the general public and relieved of the burdens of taxation that burdened them, and many prisoners were released.
Despite the soft politics of Baybars, he was following the intensity and firmness with the external enemies, and he worked to eliminate the sedition, conspiracies and revolutions that erupted in the country after he took office, the most intense of these two revolutions first erupted in Damascus and was headed by Prince of Science of religion singer Al-Halabi, who proclaimed the rebellion and called himself a Sultan, managed to control the situation as he sent an army that brought him captive to Cairo.
The attempted rebellion and the second revolution came in Cairo by a Shia man who tried to assemble a number of Shiites around him in order to try a rebellion and revolt, and he and his people seized the horses and weapons and set up revolutions, but this revolution did not last much, as Baybars was quick to eliminate it and ordered With the skin of its leader.
Achievements and victories:-
The era of Sultan Baybars witnessed many of the achievements and deeds associated with his name, including: his founding of the Mamluk state and his attempt to revive the Abbasid Caliphate, which collapsed with the fall of Baghdad in the hands of Holaco, he brought “Abu Abbas Ahmed ” and made him a caliph of Muslims and his allegiance to The work of the Book of God and the Sunnah of his prophet and thus became a caliph of Muslims again, and despite the presence of the caliph but the actual power was in the hands of Baybars.
Baybars also extended his influence to many countries until he reached the Hijaz, wiped out his enemies and the enemies of the Mamluk state, and eliminated the ruler of Karak, the king “Omar ibn al-Adel Ayyubi”, who used to be a runner-up, and then took Baybars to the Karak and appointed them.
One of the important things that Al-Zaher Baybars has done is to seek the elimination of the remaining cross and Mongol stalkers in the Islamic State, to conclude agreements and treaties, to ensure the cohesion of his inner forehead and equip the army to exit to secure his external forehead, and began to launch raids on the UAE Crusader, as he worked to recover what in their hands from the land, and for the Mughal he allied with the “Baraka Khan ” This Mongol leader who declared his Islam and strengthened his relationship with him in order to secure his side and ally with him against the Mongols Holaco and his sons, who were imposing their control on Iraq and Persia.
Baybars worked to prepare the army and the fleet and equip them with all the necessary weapons and materiel, so that he was able to achieve many victories on the crusader and Mongol arenas, and from his victories the Crusades recall the opening of a fair, War will, The Citadel of Safed, Jaffa, and concluded with the conquest of Antioch, which was the fort The hippocampus has achieved a resounding victory by opening this city.
He also made numerous victories over the Mongols in his beer and Harran position, and the successive Mongol attacks on his country, which were finally wiped out at the town of Abelstein in 675 ah, and thus brought Baybars to the insurance of his foreign front and state borders.
Achieving internal achievements:-
At the internal level, Baybars worked to strengthen the country’s foundations and Renaissance in all fields, and Egypt saw in the reign of a new era of prosperity, especially that it managed to secure its external borders and eliminated sedition and internal conspiracies, and from the reforms that Egypt has witnessed by introducing amendments to the system , he appointed four judges representing the four sects, and the mosque of Al-Azhar, and he carried out a number of renovation and cosmetic campaigns until his beauty and prestige were restored, and he worked on the establishment of many educational institutions, creating schools in Egypt and Damascus, and defining the Egyptian school as the “school Virtual “Schools have huge libraries that abound in vast amounts of books.
In Cairo, he created one of the important mosques, the mosque of Al-Zaher Baybars, which still stands for me today, and the area around him is known as the neighborhood of Al-Zaher Baybars, in addition to the many remaining relics which remained immortal to testify on a bright period lived by Egypt, and Baybars worked on the construction of bridges, digging canals and creating Archways, and created a scale for the Nile and many other works.
Outside Egypt, he carried out a number of reforms at the Prophet’s sanctuary in Medina, renovated the Mosque of Ibrahim (peace be upon him) in Sham, renovated the dome of the Rock and Bayt al-Maqdis, and worked to establish a Justice house to adjudicate cases and consider grievances.
Death of the ruler of Egypt:-
Baybars ‘ death came on the 28th of Muharram in 676 ah and on May 2, 1277, after the life of a bus spent some 17 years in the government, after which his eldest son Nasser al-Din took over the verdict, but the boys of Baybars did not last for them long, because of the Mamluks ‘ greed in judgment, his children were killed, A prince of the Mamluks, known as Saif al-Din Qalawun al-Alfy.