Omar al-Mukhtar, a hero and a Libyan fighter, was named “Sheikh al-Mujahideen ” due to his heroism and strength in defending his homeland and his people against the Italian occupation and he became the same as a hero, Mujahid, and politician, and before Omar Mukhtar was a successful mujahid was a great religious leader, which gave him a political dimension and religious. Omar al-Mukhtar life passed through many eventful events, the last of which was replete with the struggle and resistance movements led by Omar al-Mukhtar to defend his homeland and liberate him from the hands of the colonial forces. Over the last 20 years of his life, he continued to struggle, rejecting all the temptations that Presented to him by the Italian government to give up defending his country’s cause, he kept holding the banner of the patriotic struggle as a brave knight until the last day of his life, the day of his martyrdom, leaving history the memory of a great hero and exemplary.
Birth and Origin:- His full name is Omar bin Mukhtar bin Farhat of Ghaith’s family, and Farhat tribe from Buraydah, one of the bellies of the al-Manfa tribe, one of the Arab tribes known for the bass and bravery in the region, was born Omar Mukhtar in the year 1277-1859 in the area of Wadi al-Balaqa He joined while still young in the corner of Janzor, where he learned the principles of reading and writing and memorizing the Holy Qur’an, and then enrolled in the corner of Gghabob, one of the angles created by Muhammad ibn Ali al-Senussi “The great Senussi ” where he received his religious instruction in it and studied religious principles and Islamic Sciences Islamic history and Arabic literature. Omar al-Mukhtar was known for his strong leadership and poise in addition to his modesty, which made him gain the love and respect of all who dealt with him. Omar Al Mukhtar also admired Sheikh al-Senussi at this time Mr. Al-Mahdi al-Senussi, and he sent him in many tasks. Among these tasks is the task of settling disputes between the tribes and his tasks have always been successful, which earned him the respect of the tribes and deepened his knowledge of their situation. A decision by the Senussi to appoint him as a sheikh on the corner of the Green Mountain palaces near the meadow, perhaps this challenged the abilities of Omar al-Mukhtar as this area he was appointed as a sheikh on the corner inhabited by a rebel tribe that does not recognize or abide by the laws, but Omar Mukhtar managed in his wise manner At the same time, he is determined to do the task of tame them, to eliminate their rebellion and to try to reveal Islamic morals among themselves.
British Colonization:- The point at which the Italian colonization was able to infiltrate into the heart of Libya was that it created a bank to help and lend the Libyan people to secure their land, and therefore if the borrower could not refund the loan, the land would be seized, and this method would be rolled over and over again so that the Italian bank could The seizure of vast tracts of Libyan territory, and Italy sent a mission to Tripoli, which then said it was a scientific mission to Libyan territory on the pretext of detecting the phosphate metal, but the trick was revealed where it was found to be a military mission came to put the maps of war, and began the colonial vision and ambitions That arose around Libyan territory is evident from what provoked the Libyan people and its effects, and of course the Omar al-Mukhtar, who decided to use Islamic principles urging jihad to reclaim the usurped land, immediately worked to prepare the country to face this Italian colonization as the country did not Sufficient military and political preparedness or preparation to confront this colonialism, the mayor’s work to hold conferences, motivate and sensitize the people to the Italian colonial threat and encourage them to defend and provide for their country, Libya turned into a huge camp poised for jihad in any Moment and repel the aggression of the country.
Italy had already expressed its intention to colonize the country and sent a warning and threat to the Ottoman government in September 1911 that included a threat to occupy Tripoli and Beni Ghazi as Italy feared for its Italian nationals in Libya, which the Ottoman government met in a very weak way Complacency is a student to sit for negotiations, something that did not happen where the Italian fleet was already on its way to the Libyan coasts. Omar al-Mukhtar learned during his tours between Libyan cities to urge people to fight the siege and hit the Italian fleet of Libyan cities, and that the residents clashed with the colonial forces to defend their cities, he rushed back where he positioned him and thousands of mujahideen in a place near Benghazi and managed to His position is that he and the group with whom he has to sow terror in the hearts of the Italian forces and have inflicted many heavy losses. The Italian government began to recognize the personality of Omar al-Mukhtar, whose name appeared to be frequented by the Italian leadership as a seasoned Muslim military commander who was causing many casualties, and all the temptations that the Italian government had given him was unsuccessful in jihad, and given the inability The Italian government for resisting this great leader has resorted to Astana to hold a reconciliation with the Ottoman government, where a treaty between the two countries was signed on October 21, 1912, and the Ottoman government withdrew its forces in the belief that this agreement put an end to the war, but the mujahideen in Libya They kept holding on to their weapons and ready for any attack from the Italian forces. Despite the withdrawal of troops from Libyan cities by Italian troops, they have carried out numerous provocative actions, including the involvement of many mujahedin in prisons and attacks on their various property, Who met with the Libyan mujahideen to kidnap and kill Italian soldiers and try to inflict them as much as possible, and because of the resentment of the Italian troops from the abundance of its losses, in 1919 announced the promulgation of a law stipulating that it will govern the country without oppression, but the situation of the country remained between wars and battles that Omar Chosen by her leadership for twenty years is connected between defeat and Victory and has not known weakness or surrender a path to his heart at all.
The arrest and death of the hero:- Omar Al Mukhtar has been in the 20 years of continuous attacks and battles on the Italian troops without the chosen captive Rest for a moment or enjoy the rest of the country colonialism is still in its heart, and despite the many wounds that have been formed in its body, the monuments are not erased by time, however long the death despite its proximity to him most of the time, but he could not get him through all this period, but for every champion end he came The day he came out with his forces of fighters for the reconnaissance of the enemy forces and the colonial forces were lying, he and his soldiers were surrounded and as a great knight Basil defending the cause of a fair, Omar Mukhtar of courage and steadfastness and he kept exchanging fire with the enemy until one of the bullets hit his horse and fell from him so I managed The Italian troops, who had taken him to the port of Sousse, had been transferred to Benghazi, where he had been imprisoned for four days until the trial in September 1931, and when the Italian leader had read the charges against him, he had not denied them, but he had confirmed that the teachings of Islam had enjoined them to jihad against the aggressor. The occupiers and that he had done nothing but to carry out the teachings of Islam in pushing the colonization of his country and saving it from the occupier and saving the people from humiliation and succumbing to a brutal occupier of the country to colonize it and loot its goodness. Omar al-Mukhtar was sentenced to death by hanging, which was previously prepared by the Italian government even before the trial began, and on the day after the trial on 16 September 1931, the gallows was prepared and already equipped, where the heroic knight was taken to the square of execution and he echoes the testimonies to be martyred in Seventy years old in the sight of his family and his soldiers and his people, to leave in history the memory of an Arab champion father to subject his country to humiliation by the colonizer and remained to the last breath with his chest cheer her love and seeks to rid his people from the fires of colonialism. The story of the life of the Libyan hero Omar Mukhtar and his struggle against the Italian occupation were taken up through a huge film starring the Mexican world artist Anthony Quinn and directed by the Syrian international director Mustafa Akkad. The Italian Commander Raddolfo Grazani (commander in charge of the execution of Omar al-Mukhtar) by writing “Cyrenim al-Mahdah” exposed the personality of Omar Mukhtar in his book and presentation through his point of view and what he said in his book describing his meeting with Libyan martyr Omar Mukhtar before the trial with him “When I came in front of my office, I was prepared to see the character of the thousands of Almoravids I met in the course of the desert Wars. His hands are chained, despite the fractures and wounds he sustained during the battle, and his face was compressed because he was covering his head (with inventory) and dragging himself hard because he was tired while traveling by sea, and altogether seems me that what stands before me is a man who is not like men has a view and prestige although he feels the bitterness of captivity, there he is standing In front of my office we ask him and answer in a quiet and clear voice. “ Grazani: Why did you fight so hard by the fascist government? Shaykh replied: For religious and national sake. “When he stood for his parting, his brow was a light aura of Nur, and my heart wavered from His Majesty, who fought the battles of world and desert Wars and was nicknamed the Lion of the desert. Despite this, my lips were shaking and I could not say a single letter, so I finished the interview and ordered him back to prison for a trial in the evening, and when he was standing he tried to reach out to shake hands, but he could not because his hands were tied to iron. “