* Cumin (Cumin ‘Cyninum)
Cumin is an ancient medicinal plant and it is believed that the Upper Nile is the original home of the plant, where it was planted by the ancient Egyptians who called it Qammeni.
Cumin is grown in most parts of the world, especially in India, Russia, North Africa and Central America.
And is cultivated in Syria on a few areas in the areas of Homs, Hama, Ghab and Aleppo. The cultivated area for the year 2001 was 39476 hectares and 942 hectares under the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform.
In some Arab countries, cumin is named as Sumot, Zeira, Cumin and Pisum. The plant belongs to the umbelliferae and its Latin name is Cumimun Cyninum.
Cumin is a round grass, with a cylindrical stalk up to 30-50 cm. The leaves are a fine floss, composed of white or white nailed flowers, the fruit is double brown, its aroma strong and distinctive and its taste is spicy.
– Egyptian Cumin :
The growth is limited and its length is about 30 cm. Its branches are semi-creeping, branches are grassy and medium-sized fruits are 0.4-0.6 cm long and 0.2-0.3 cm in diameter, oval and light brown.
2- Syrian Cumin:
The growth is strong and has a length of about 60 cm and its branches are large and large fruits of length 0.6-0.7 cm in diameter 0.3-0.4 cm rectangular oval shape and color yellowish brown.
3 – Iranian Cumin :
The growth is weak and has a length of about 35 cm and its branches creepy and fruits are very small length between 0.2-0.3 cm and the shape of oval and color brown nailed.
A winter plant that bears the cold, but it does not withstand the extreme heat and the optimum heat of growth is approximately 25 °, and the high humidity adversely affect the growth, the cumin succeeds in most of the red land and succeeds irrigated in the light yellow or middle lands containing lime
Cumin is grown during October and November. The soil is prepared for agriculture as in winter crops. The seeds are then drilled on 50-60 cm lines between the lines and 20-25 cm between the two holes on one line. Agriculture can be planted on long lines of 15-25 cm between the line and the other. -20 kg of fruits to grow. The coagulation process takes place at the height of 10-15 cm where the strongest plant or plant is left in the hole.
In a 1997-98 and 1998-99 study on the determination of the optimal seed rate / kg / dunum, it was found that:
Best agricultural appointments
Best agricultural rates kg / dunum
Productivity kg / dunum
Irrigation and fertilization:
The plant is irrigated 5-6 times according to the nature of the soil and the dryness of the atmosphere. Cumin is not found in good land. In the middle lands, the needs of one hectare are 20-25 m3 of the municipal fertilizer, 350 kg of super phosphate and the same of ammonia sulphate and 120 kg of potassium sulphate. During the cultivation of the natural preparation or when cultivating the previous crop in the land or the mineral fertilizer is added in the first two payments when planning the land for agriculture and the second after planting about 45-60 days.
The fruits ripen in March and April and maturity is known as plant color change and yellowing begins. Harvesting is preferred before maturity is completed when the fruits start to turn brown. It should be collected early in the morning with the presence of dew so as not to lose fruit on the ground and lose a large part of the crop has been found that the proportion of oil is high in the fruits on sunny days, so it is recommended to combine on a sunny day.
The plants are cut and transferred to the place of drying and placed in the form of piles and then knock and drip as in the anise crop gives the hectare about 800-1200 kg of fruit.
Cumin fruits contain cumin oil called cuminol, ranging from 3-4% to 7%, light yellow, tasting with light bitterness. This oil is mainly made of cumin aldehyde (30-35%) and other oxygen substances Including penin pinene, dipantine, and phylandrene.
The oil is extracted by steam distillation, while the remaining part after extracting the oil contains protein, starch and fiber.
Cumin is one of the most important spices added in the form of powder to most types of food, whether plant or animal origin to open the appetite to taste and aroma characteristic and cumin fruit powder enters the food products, especially the news industry, biscuits and meat and fish products, cheese industry and aromatic oil resulting in the fruit of cumin .
It is also used as a flavor enhancer for some food products: bread products, biscuits, desserts, dairy products, cheese, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.
Since ancient times, the fruits of cumin and hot water extract have been used to expel gases, intestinal blooms, remove colic and abdominal cramps when taken for adults and children, even infants. It is also useful for women to produce milk. Also dairy farm animals may increase the amount of milk and accelerate women’s menstruation. Cough and bulges The oil is also used in the treatment of rheumatism of the heart by using grease and dandruff and prevent some superficial tumors and superficial puffiness outside the body when the fat and massage places once a day for a week and add to some ointments necessary for fatigue M wounds to the severity of extinction of some harmful microbes.
* Aniseed Pimpinella
The word “Latin” means two wings and refers to the feathery leaves and the word anisum is the old Arabic name of the Julian.
The home of the anise plant is the countries of the East and Egypt and is cultivated extensively in central south-eastern Europe, in East Asia, Macedonia, Syria, Tunisia, Marrakech, India, China, Chile and Mexico, and grows on a small scale in some parts of the United States of America.
The seeds of anise differ somewhat in appearance and the proportion of oil according to their source, for example, Spanish anise is shorter than German and French while the seeds of Russian anise are very shorter.
The cultivated area for the year amounted to 2001/22 hectares and 1361 hectares, according to statistics from the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian reform.
Anise is a herbaceous plant with a height of 50-60 cm and a branched leg and its alternating leaves surround the leg at the knot its lower leaves with a long diameter and the shape of the heart and its edges with large teeth, and the upper leaves are almost unlit and divided into long threadlike lobes and light it complex and white flowers Small and its fruits are splinter to two and are small aromatic.
Some varieties of anise:
There are many varieties whose name derives from the name of the country, including the Syrian, Spanish, Dutch and Egyptian anise.
Fruit width mm
Percentage of cracks in fruits
Syrian Arab 110 4 1.5 14.6 5
Spanish 120 4.5 1.5-2 14.2 5.5
Dutch 80 3.5 2-2.5 17.2 4
Egyptian 50 3.5 1.2-2 22 3.5
Anise is a winter plant that needs a mild, cold, cool atmosphere and is not suitable for high humidity and the critical period of heat is from the onset of flowering to maturity.
The plant needs a fertile, neutral soil rich in organic matter, lime and well ventilated, which is in the yellow Celtic lands where it is cultivated and in the red lands where it is grown.
Date of planting:
The date of planting varies according to the temperature of the region, in temperate zones cultivated as a crop during the October and second months.