The definition of Mahatma Gandhi is Muhandas Karamchand Gandhi, an Indian leader and philosopher who believed in nonviolence and worked very much to grant freedom to the Indians, to know the problems and needs of the people and to make them the basis of the national struggle, and has many titles, including the title of Mahatma means “the great soul or the Saint” And, indeed, Gandhi was a great personality, believed in the power of the soul, more than the strength of the flesh and arms, and despite his passing years and years, history still remembers him so far. Gandhi’s ideas, principles and means for the restoration of his people’s rights were not calling for violence at all, but depended on the means Others often lead to better results, including boycotts, pickets, abstinence, civil disobedience, and other peaceful means of pressure, which the militant must be fully convinced of, even if this leads to his death for his cause, and this does not in one way or another mean the fear of direct confrontation and the use Violence, because sometimes when peaceful lobbying fails, a militant is forced to resort to violence, and Gandhi, through his non-violent approach, tries to highlight the injustice of the occupier and try to gain public opinion in his capacity, all as an initial step to eliminate and completely banish the enemy.
Birth, upbringing and education:-
Born on the 2nd of October in 1869 in the town of Borbandr, which means “White City ” This city is located in a small state of Northwest India, Gandhi was born to an affluent, conservative family and a high level of culture, and his family believed in the idea of non-violence in any way, and this idea was It is always one of its basic religious principles, which Gandhi then became.
Gandhi belongs to the class of Albania, a social class in India, his grandfather was prime minister in Borbandr, his father served as a member of the Rajsteek court and then prime Minister in Rajkot, and his family had experience and sold in the field of political work.
Gandhi received his elementary education at the Borbandr Elementary School, then moved to Rajkot school until the age of 10, from where he moved to the Katyavar school, where he remained until he was 17 years old and went out to attend Ahmed Abad University.
Gandhi married at the age of 13, according to Indian tradition, and his marriage resulted in the birth of four children.
In 1888, he travelled to London to study rights, and after completing his studies he returned again to India in 1891 to begin practicing as a lawyer in the Bombay Supreme Court, but he did not continue in this profession much.
In 1858, Britain formally annexed India to the British Crown, hence the British occupation that India has been captive to for a period of time, and Gandhi’s struggle against colonialism was based on one of the basic principles on which he relied, namely the principle of “Satia Negra”, which means resistance of peaceful or non-violent politics, and the principle of faith depends on a number of religious, political and economic foundations that merge together in order to highlight the objectives of this principle, and Gandhi explained that the policy of nonviolence does not mean cowardice or fear of direct confrontation with the enemy but on the contrary it is a way to show the injustice of the party The other and his coercive methods with full understanding and familiarity with all the dimensions of the problem and the danger surrounding, and the resort to violence in the end if there is no other way, the idea dominating the mentality of Gandhi that “to abstain from punishment is only a forgiveness when the ability to punish actually exists” Violence can be resorted to if there is no other way. ”
His struggle was divided into two parts, the first of which was in the “South Africa ” period between 1893 – 1914, where Gandhi moved to work in South Africa in a law firm in Natal and traveled there in 1893 CE, and remained there for 21 years, South Africa was at this time a British colony like India and had Many of the workers who work in it, Gandhi gained during his time there many experiences as he practiced his struggle there also he saw the racial discrimination that the British have against the Africans and Indians who work there, he defended the Indian community, and worked to create a newspaper ” Indian opinion “through which he called for a policy of peaceful resistance, and worked to establish the party ” Indian conference for the “, which made it a center for the Defense of Indian rights in South Africa, and called on the Indians to cast their ballots in the elections, and worked to change the” Asian Decree “which was States that Indians must register themselves in private registers, and other matters aimed at the benefit of the Indian citizen.
Struggle in India:-
The second stage was in “India ” In 1914 – 1922, in which he focused his attention on the struggle for workers and peasants the main idea that dominated Gandhi’s mentality was the idea of non-violence and he felt that the main reason for the strength of the British in the region was their dependence mainly on the cooperation of all On the layers of the people with them, if this cooperation is withdrawn, the British government will not be able to withstand much in India, but to achieve this goal it was necessary to unite and understand all classes, and in the meantime there was a strongly opposed Islamic stance to the British government which was seeking to divide Turkey between The Western allies and the dismantling of the Islamic caliphate, which was exploited by Gandhi, where he joined and allied with the leaders demanding the preservation of the caliphate and is behind this alliance a strong popular Movement against the British occupation, that was between 1920 – 1924.
National Resistance Movement:-
Gandhi is the one who once again resurrected the national Resistance movement with his instrumental role in bringing the Indian diaspora together and pushing them for one goal, and he sharpened their interest for a strong goal of liberating their homeland and finding a solution to their problems and suffering, and they all melted in a single crucible of their different nationalities and doctrines and this was in itself is the first path to success in Gandhi’s journey that he achieved unity among the Indians despite their differences.
This movement, spearheaded by Gandhi, began to spread throughout India and moved into a new stage of public political action, in view of the proliferation of principles that advocate freedom throughout the world, and also in view of the poverty and suffering experienced by Indian workers and peasants, and began the process of establishing Of trade unions and Gandhi’s work to pay attention to peasants, he strove to try to reduce their tax burdens.
Attitudes towards justice and freedom for his people:-
Gandhi worked very much for the sake of justice and freedom for his people, he worked to create a link between the national movement and the people, he introduced the economic demands in the national programs, called for the popularization of the spinning industry, boycott of the English goods, and declared civil disobedience to abolish the monopoly of salt, and other things in which he took care of the interests of the Indians and tried to meet their needs.
One of the important positions taken by Gandhi was to make a decision to fast to death in 1932, as a kind of protest against a project that discriminated in the elections against the untouchables of the Indians, which called on the political and religious leaders to intervene in order to abolish the system of electoral excellence and knew ” The Puna convention. “
His positions also mention his defiance of British laws, which used to monopolize the salt and limit its extraction to the British authorities only, not only the challenge and defiance, but he led a popular march to extract salt from the sea, and indeed finally reached an agreement known as “the Delhi Treaty” in 1931.
India’s access to independence:-
Gandhi led a new mutiny in 1940 as a protest against Britain’s declaration of India as a fight against the Axis countries without India gaining independence, and in view of Britain’s preoccupation with World War II, it was interested in the security of India in order to devote time to its wars, and agreed Gandhi finally took up India’s participation in the war in the hope of gaining its independence in the end, and indeed India entered the war against the Axis states in 1943, and Britain then practiced severe crackdowns and oppression against the Indian people, headed by Gandhi who was imprisoned for a while, and when Bo loomed The turn of independence attempts began to divide India between Hindus and Muslims and Gandhi sought to prevent this secession, but his attempts to fail and were separated, which resulted in severe deterioration and violence throughout the country, which has greatly saddened Gandhi and called for national unity, and the importance of respect for The Muslim minority’s right to independence was finally attained in 1947, after the popular resistance and struggle of Gandhi’s leaders strongly with other Indians.
Books and Writings:-
Gandhi presented the book “The Story of my experiments with truth ” This book in which Gandhi himself recounted the story of his life with all the attitudes and events that he has undergone.
Many of the writings dealing with Gandhi’s biography, the story of his struggle and the empire of these books include Knab “Muhandas ” of Rajmohan Gandhi, and another book by Mahmoud Abbas El Akkad, in which he addressed the legend Gandhi titled “Great Spirit – Mahatma Gandhi”.
Leaders, personalities and books influenced his life:-
One of the most influential figures in Gandhi’s life and ideas was the leader “Jawkhal “, a prominent man in India who sought educational reforms, and there is also “Dada bhai “, the founder of the nationalist movement in India and one of the important elements from which Gandhi learned the principles of No Violence and the heroic negativity.
A number of compositions had a profound impact on Gandhi’s philosophy and thinking of them “The anthem of the Blessed”, a Hindu poetic epic written in the third century BC, the “Sermon of the Mountain ” in the Gospel, the book “Even the last man ” of the English philosopher John Raskin, and the book “Salvation in yourselves ” for the The Russian Tolstoy, the book “Civil disobedience ” of American poet Henry David Toro.
The death of Gandhi:-
Gandhi has always had his opinions and ideas, all of which are aimed at the importance of the freedom of peoples and the right of the human being to live in peace, and Gandhi was not only opinions in the Indian case but in other issues such as the Middle East issue in which he said, “I do not ask for the establishment of a national homeland for Jews in Palestine Palestine belongs to the Arabs just as England belongs to the English and French to the French, that Palestine mentioned in the Torah is not in the geographical land, but in their hearts and there is nothing to be said against the resistance of the Arabs in the face of obstacles not before them.
In his late life, Gandhi devoted a large part of his ideas to defending the rights of the Muslim minority, deeply saddened by the secession of Pakistan and the violence in Kashmir and invited Hindus to respect the rights of Muslims, which provoked some fanatics against him and considered him a traitor and assassinated him by shooting him in January 30, 1948, he died at the age of 79 years.