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Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha

Mohamed Ali Pasha is one of the most famous figures in world history and Egyptian history in modern times, and is the main reason for the construction of modern Egypt, where Egypt has witnessed a renaissance and progress in various fields, both economic and military.








Generator and Mohamed Ali:-

Mohamed Ali was born in 1769, in 1183, from an Albanian dynasty in the town of (said) one of the small ports on the border between Tarofeh and Macedonia, his father Ibrahim Agha died and he is still in childhood and he took care of his Aunt Thompson but he also died, adopted by one of his father’s friends and worked on his care and upbringing Until he was 18, he learned to play with the sword, joined the military service in the Army, served as a ruler and gained his satisfaction with his intelligence and skill, and acquired a lot of French customs and manners, and when Muhammad reached the age of 30 joined the Army again when the high door began to rally his armies did not He was attacked by the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte.

The reign of Egypt and the massacre of the Citadel:-
Muhammad Ali then moved to Egypt in 1801 AD as an associate of a battalion president with an army (Captain Hussein Pasha) who came to evacuate the French, stayed in Egypt after the French went out and because of his distinction he was promoted to several positions, became a deputy to the Ottoman sultan, then became the Wali of Egypt in 1805 CE, where he began his duties Ko To eliminate the Mamluks in the famous Castle massacre, as well as to destroy the English in the Battle of Rasheed, and thus about Egypt to a state of political stability in order to begin to build and strengthen its position among the different countries, he turned to internal reform and was the beginning by the establishment of the first regular army He was helped by the French who left the French campaign.

Wars carried out by:-

Muhammad Ali carried out a number of external conquests, including his war against the Wahhabis in the Hijaz and found and annexed to his reign in 1818, then he went to fight the Sudanese in 1820, as he seized the sham and triumphed on the Ottomans in 1833 CE, and almost seizes the capital Astana, but Russia, Britain and France have With the protection of the Ottoman sultan, he stayed with Muhammad all except Syria and Crete and in 1839 he fought the Sultan but was defeated and forced to retreat at the London conference in 1840 after smashing his fleet in Nafarin. They were forced to determine the numbers of the army and to rule Egypt in order to be self-governing by the older children.

Reforms and achievements:-
The era of Muhammad Ali witnessed many achievements and reforms in various fields where he created many schools and sent many missions to receive science in Europe, and established the Egyptian Chronicle, and established factories and laboratories to dispense the foreign countries in meeting the needs of the army and the fleet, as he divided The land so that each of them was devoted to the cultivation of a particular crop and distributed to the peasants to cultivate and care for it and to benefit its money for the payment of Amiri funds, and introduced modifications in the methods of agriculture, and used modern machines, and introduced a number of new crops such as cotton and sugar cane, and worked to reform the system Irrigation, he created many canals, bridges and archways, and in the field of commerce took advantage of Egypt’s privileged location and about me in ports and established roads to facilitate the transfer of trade.







In the military field, he prepared a strong army, recruited the Egyptians, established the military school, put the first nucleus of the Navy, and created the Egyptian fleet, the fleet, which fought a number of important wars and triumphed in the most important of the war, and also established the naval industry in Alexandria, which is called Currently (naval Arsenal), in order to meet the needs of the Egyptian fleet of ships, as well as several administrative reforms in Egypt, established the Council of the Diwans, the High Court was based The Citadel and is headed by the Wali, and has branches in the government, such as the Office of Schools and the military office.





The death of the founder of the modern State:-
Muhammad Ali Pasha died on 13 Ramadan 1265-2 August 1848, after he managed to move Egypt an important cultural move that history still remembers.

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