Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte or Napoleon I, a French leader, has written a lot of history as a military commander with no dust and Emperor to France, where he has won many victories, and his armies have occupied most of the European continent in a period of time, and led the famous French campaign on Egypt.
Napoleon knew his genius and intelligence, which helped him to achieve victory in the many battles he had fought, where during his reign of France he achieved a number of reforms including the introduction of several reforms of the financial and judicial system, and he created the Bank of France, in addition to overseeing the development French law which gave many freedoms to the French people.
The birth and genesis of the Emperor:-
Born on August 15, 1769, in Ajaccio, French island of Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte received his education and military training in France, where he joined a French military school, then joined the Paris Military Academy and graduated with the rank of a second lieutenant in the French army in 1785 CE.
Bonaparte assumed the rank of a second lieutenant in the French Army Artillery Corps, then served in the artillery Training school, and in 1791 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and to the rank of captain in 1792 CE, and, given the intelligence of Napoleon and his military and political skill quickly incorporated into his work, he was appointed commander Of the French army in 1794, after being able to protect the city of Toulon during the French Revolution.
Napoleon was able to win the victory of France and the French army in the many battles he fought and the beginning was a victory in the war between him and Austria, and then his victories in a number of other major wars, until France signed the Treaty of Campo Formio, which resulted in the expansion of France in its territory.
Military campaigns, the most popular of which is the campaign against Egypt:
After all these victories, Napoleon returned home as a great national champion who achieved much for his country, and after all this success, France and Napoleon Bonaparte went to Egypt and launched a military campaign to take a military base to fight Britain, gain access to English property in India, and implement its plans In expelling the English from their possessions in the east, and finding another trade route after the English took over the road of the Cape of Good Hope, working on the construction of the Suez Canal, and also to seize the wealth existing in Egypt, and work to discipline the Mamluks who abused the French and seize The property of the Ottoman Empire, and indeed sailed the French naval fleet from the port of Toulon on May 19, 1798 CE, and on the road to Egypt took over the island of Malta, and the armies of the French campaign arrived in Egypt where they entered Alexandria and occupied it on July 2, 1798, then the French took Led by Napoleon Bonaparte to crawl to Cairo through the Egyptian cities and villages, which was not easy where the French soldiers found various kinds of popular resistance from the Egyptians, in addition to the confrontation between the French army and the army of the Mamluks led Murad Beck and ended with the defeat of the Mamluks And the French entering Cairo.
Napoleon courted the Egyptians
Napoleon tried by all means to woo the Egyptians and show them as a hero who came to liberate them from the domination of the Mamluks, and he worked to favor the Egyptians by affirming his respect for their customs and traditions, and tried by all means to convince them that he is Muslim and that the French soldiers are Muslims and that he and his soldiers sabotaged the chair The Pope in Rome, who was urging Christians to fight the Muslims, as they did in Malta by expelling the Knights of St. John, was trying not to appear in the image of the occupier, but he was unable to cheat this policy as Egyptians revolted against colonialism and beat the finest proverbs in the championship stories and the struggle against the occupation.
The French occupation of Egypt lasted only three years as a result of the fierce resistance and revolutions waged by Egyptians over French colonization and the outbreak of the plague, where the French Army began a phase of weakness, in addition to the fact that England and Turkey were determined to expel the French from Egypt, and indeed a plan was held Between the Ottoman army and the English fleet led by English Commander Nelson and the defeat of the French army in the battle called the Battle of the Nile, the French army was evacuated from Egypt in 1801 CE.
He assumed the rule of France:-
After the failure of Napoleon’s crackdown on Egypt, he returned to France, where he turned a coup d’état and became emperor in May 1804, Napoleon was able to be a huge European empire, in 1805, he entered the war against Britain, Austria and Russia and succeeded in overcoming them but when the French army entered Moscow was unable to resist. Napoleon was unable to supply his army with the necessary supplies, as a result of the cold weather and the spread of diseases in his ranks, which killed nearly 500,000 French soldiers and defeated Napoleon and his army.
After Napoleon’s return from Russia, a number of European countries, including Austria, England, Russia and Russia, were allied to the “Battle of Nations” and Paris fell into their hands on April 11, 1814, and Napoleon ceded the throne and banished on the island of “Alba” on the northwest coast of Italy, but returned again and Army again but the Allies confronted him with the leadership of England and defeated him again in 1815 in the location of the famous Waterloo near Brussels, which could not be with Napoleon another army and decided to cede the verdict where he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Victories and achievements:-
During his reign in France, Napoleon was able to join most European countries to his influence, and he contributed to the development of French law or civil law, which gave the French people many freedoms and this law, which was developed by Napoleon, remains the basis of French civil law to date, in addition to many The reforms he made to France.
Despite the occupation and oppression of the Egyptian people by the soldiers of the French occupation led by Napoleon, there were a number of pros, including the presence of many scientists accompanying Napoleon and the French campaign, where there were many scientists in various scientific and artistic fields And other doctors, painters and astronomers who have all contributed to the development of the book “description of Egypt ” which is the book that monitors and records all matters of life in Egypt from an ancient cultural life and documentation of all the historical, artistic and religious treasures of the Egyptian, so the book came out in twenty distinct parts with strong paintings and drawings Accuracy, this book is now the largest handmade manuscript with a comprehensive inventory of Egyptian lands and monuments with in-depth study and illustrations.
One of Napoleon’s dreams was to dig a canal linking the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, but this dream was not fulfilled during Napoleon’s reign, but was achieved half a century later when de Lesseps dug the Suez Canal.
Napoleon and his personal life:-
He knew about Napoleon’s love for women, and he married Josephine de Bouarnier with French origins. This is the woman that Napoleon loved so much and was married in 1796. Napoleon was the second husband in Josephine’s life where she was married to the Viscount de Boarignier and had two children, and his wife remained so Divorce between them in 1809 CE, and this marriage did not result in any children, Napoleon married after the divorce of Josephine from the daughter of Emperor Marie Louise.
The death of the Emperor:-
Napoleon Bonaparte died on May 5, 1821, in Exile on St. Helena at the age of 52, after suffering from a disease in his stomach that was said to be stomach ulcers or stomach cancer, but a number of research indicated that the cause of death was due to doses of the poison that had been trampled, since after analysing samples of Napoleon’s hair found samples of arsenic which were likely to have been repeated doses, buried on St. Helena, but his body was returned to Paris and buried in the church of the dome.
Napoleon’s words and sayings:-
In Egypt, if you rule, I will not waste one drop of the Nile in the sea, and I will set up the largest farms and factories launched by a huge empire, uniting Islam and Muslims under the banner of the Empire and the world prevails in French peace.
In Egypt I spent the most beautiful years, in Europe the clouds do not make you think about the projects that change history, but in Egypt, who governs can change history.
If I hadn’t been a ruler of Egypt, I would not have become Emperor of France.